Directions: In this section, you will hear three passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A）, B）, C）and D）. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
 A recent study found that ten percent of British children suffer from math anxiety. This means they have overwhelming negative emotions towards the subject, ranging from rage to despair. Other emotions triggered by math include feelings of tension and frustration. Physical symptoms include a racing heart or struggling to catch breath. The phenomenon of math anxiety is characterized as a general sense of feeling that the subject is hard compared with other subjects, leading to a subsequent lack or loss of confidence.
Researchers said they investigated individuals’ attitudes towards mathematics because of what could be referred to as a “mathematics crisis” in the UK.  There was a widespread misunderstanding that only low-performing children suffer from math anxiety. People automatically assume children are anxious about math because they are poor achievers.  In fact, more than three quarters of children with high levels of math anxiety are normal to higher achievers. Probably, their math anxiety will go unnoticed because their performance is good. But, in the long term, their performance is negatively affected. So a real danger here is that children who are completely able to do math at normal level may keep away from it because they feel anxious.
 Math anxiety can severely disrupt students’ performance in the subject in both primary and secondary school. But importantly—and surprisingly—this new study suggests that the majority of students experiencing math anxiety have normal-to-high math ability.
 最近的一项研究发现， 10%的英国孩子患有“数学焦虑症” 。这意味着他们对这个科目有强烈的负面情绪，从愤怒到绝望，不一而足。其他由数学引发的情绪包括紧张感和挫败感。身体症状包括心跳加速或呼吸困难。“数学焦虑”现象指的是一种普遍的感觉，认为这门学科比其他学科难，从而导致自信心的缺乏或丧失。
研究人员表示，他们调查了个人对数学的态度，原因是英国存在所谓的“数学危机” 。 有一种普遍的误解，认为只有成绩不好的孩子才会患上“数学焦虑症”。人们很自然地认为孩子们对数学感到焦虑是因为他们成绩不好。 事实上，超过四分之三患有严重“数学焦虑症”的孩子的数学成绩属于中等或偏上水平。也许，他们的“数学焦虑”会因为他们成绩很好而被忽视。但是，从长远来看，他们的成绩会受到负面影响。因此，一个真正的危险是那些数学完全能达到正常水平的孩子可能会远离数学，因为他们感到焦虑。
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
People spend a lot of time using phones and computers. Much of that time is devoted to text messages and social media. But many people choose to spend their time playing computer games. For years, parents and teachers have worried that these games might be addictive.  And now, the World Health Organization has recognized addiction to computer games as a disease. The organization explains that this decision reflects general agreement among experts around the world that some people have a problem with these games. They show a pattern of behavior characterized by a lot of control.  Such people make computer games a priority over their responsibilities. They may play games instead of attending school, or work, or socializing. According to the World Health Organization experts, people’s use of computer games is different from their use of the Internet, social media and online shopping. These experts claim there is not sufficient data to indicate that people’s reliance on those other activities isn’t addiction. But they argue that playing computer games to excess is different. This behavior can become a disorder.
To meet the new definition for addiction, the behavior must damage a person’s relationships, or performance at school or work, and this must last for at least a year. Still, not all behavior experts agree.  Some argue that there is not enough research on the subject. Thus, they claim it is too early to call computer game addiction a disorder.
人们花费很多时间使用手机和电脑，其中大部分时间都用于短信和社交媒体。但是很多人选择花时间玩电脑游戏。多年来，家长和老师一直担心这些游戏可能会让人上瘾。 现在，世界卫生组织已经认定电脑游戏上瘾是一种疾病。该组织解释说，这一决定反映了世界各地专家之间的普遍共识，即有些人在这些游戏上存在问题。他们表现出一种控制欲极强的行为模式。 这些人认为电脑游戏比他们的责任更重要。他们可能会玩游戏，而不是上学、工作或社交。根据世界卫生组织专家的说法，人们对电脑游戏的使用不同于对互联网、社交媒体和网上购物的使用。这些专家称，没有足够的数据表明人们对其他活动的依赖不是上瘾。但他们认为，过度玩电脑游戏不同于其他活动。这种行为可能会变成一种疾病。
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Maybe you carry the most powerful passport in the world, or perhaps the rarest passport. Whatever the case, your passport will likely be one of four colors—red, blue, green or black, although there are slight variations. Switzerland’s passport is dark red, for example,  while most European countries prefer a shade of red—that’s almost brown. There are no official rules regarding possible colors.  But countries follow a certain set of norms when designing them. The International Civil Aviation Organization, which works to define the principles of air travel, suggests that countries use suitable type, size and style for official documents like passports.  There are also a few compulsory aspects of passports. They must be made from material that bends. They should be able to be read by a machine at temperatures ranging from ten degree Celsius to fifty degree Celsius, and conditions where the air can be extremely dry or moist.
Despite these existing recommendations, there is nothing regarding the cover color. Why?  Simply put, countries stick to darker and more conservative colors because they appear more official. And they can also hide dirt and wear. While there is little innovation when it comes to passport cover color, the same cannot be said for the pages. The passports of many countries contain images of their well-known geographical features and wildlife, which also function as security features, as some are only visible under special light.
也许你的护照是世界上最强大的，也许你的护照是世界上最稀有的。无论如何，你的护照可能是这四种颜色之一 --- 红色、蓝色、绿色、黑色，尽管会有轻微的不同。例如，瑞士护照是深红色的，  而大多数欧洲国家更喜欢微红色 --- 那几乎是棕色了。对于护照颜色并没有官方规定。 但是，各国在设计护照时会遵循一定的规范。国际民用航空组织致力于界定航空旅行的原则，建议各国为护照等官方文件使用合适的类型、大小和样式。 护照也有一些强制规范。它们必须由能弯折的材料制成。它们应该能够在10至50摄氏度的温度范围内，以及空气极度干燥或潮湿的条件下，被机器识别。
尽管有这些现有的建议，但关于封面颜色没有任何建议。为什么？  简单地说，坚持使用深色和更保守的颜色，是因为它们这样看起来更正式。而且这些颜色还能掩盖污垢和磨损。虽然护照封面的颜色没有什么创新之处，但护照内页就不一样了。 许多国家的护照上都有其著名的地理特征和野生动物的图像，这些图像也作为安全特征，因为有些只有在特殊的光线下才能看到。
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.