Directions: In this section, you will hear two passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A）, B）, C）and D）. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Scientists often use specialized jargon terms while communicating with laymen. Most of them don’t realize the harmful efects of this practice.  In a new study, people exposed to jargon, when reading about subjects like autonomous vehicles and surgical robots, later said they were less interested in science than others who read about the same topics, but without the use of specialized terms. They also felt less informed about science and less qualified to discuss science topics. It’s noteworthy that it made no dif erence if the jargon terms were defined in the text. Even when the terms were defined, readers still felt the same lack of engagement as readers who read jargon that wasn’t explained. The problem is that the mere presence of jargon sends a discouraging message to readers.
Hillary Schulman, the author of the study, asserts that specialized words are a signal. Jargon tells people that the message isn’t for them. There’s an even darker side to how people react to jargon.  In another study, researchers found that reading scientific articles containing jargon led people to doubt the actual science. They found the opposite when a text is easier to read. Then people are more persuaded. Thus, it’s important to communicate clearly when talking about complex science subjects. This is especially true with issues related to public health, like the safety of new medications and the benefits of vaccines. Schulman concedes that the use of jargon is appropriate with scientific audiences.  But scientists who want to communicate with the general public need to modify their language. They need to eliminate jargon.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the passage you have just heard.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, on the Gulf Coast in the US state of Texas, there was a hill where gas leakage was so noticeable that schoolboys would sometimes set the hill on fire.  Patillo Higgins, a disreputable local businessman,became convinced that there was oil below the gassy hill. Oil wells weren’t drilled back then. They were essentially dug. The sand under the hill defeated several attempts by Higgins’ workers to make a proper hole. Higgins had forecast oil at 1,000 feet, a totally made-up figure. Higgins subsequently hired a mining engineer—captain Anthony Lucas.  After encountering several setbacks, captain Lucas decided to use a drill, and his innovations created the modern oil drilling industry. In January 1901, at 1,020 feet, almost precisely the depth predicted by Higgins’ wild guess, the well roared and suddenly ejected mud and six tons of drilling pipe out of the ground, terrifying those present. For the next nine days until the well was capped, the well poured out more oil than all the wells in America combined.
In those days, Texas was almost entirely rural, with no large cities and practically no industry.  Cotton and beefwere the foundation of the economy. Higgins’ well changed that. The boom made some prospectors millionaires,but the sudden surplus of petroleum was not entirely a blessing for Texas. In the 1930s, prices crashed to the point that in some parts of the country, oil was cheaper than water. That would become a familiar pattern of the boom or bust Texas’ economy.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.