Directions: In this section, you will hear three recordings of lectures or talks followed by three or four questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A）, B）, C）and D）. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Most people dislike their jobs. It’s an astonishing but statistical fact.  A primary cause of employee dissatisfaction, according to fresh research, is that many believe they have terrible managers. Few describe their managers as malicious or manipulative, though. While those types certainly exist, they are a minority. The majority of managers seemingly just don’t know any better. They’re often emulating bad managers they’ve had in the past. It’s likely they’ve never read a management book or attended a management course. They might not have even reflected on what good management looks like and how it would influence their own management style.
The researchers interviewed employees about their managers, beginning with a question about the worst manager they had ever had. From this, the researchers came up with four main causes of why some managers are perceived as being simply awful at their jobs.  The first cause was company culture, which was seen by employees as enabling poor management practices. It was specifically stressful work environments, minimal training, and a lack of accountability that were found to be the most blameworthy. Often a manager’s superiors can effectively encourage a manager’s distasteful behavior when they fail to discipline the person’s wrong doings. Such workplaces are sometimes described as toxic. The second cause was attributed to the managers’ characteristics. Those deemed to be most destructive were odd people, those without drive, those who allow personal problems into the workplace, and those with an unpleasant temperament or personality in general. The third cause of poor management was associated with a deficiency of qualifications, not so much the formal variety one obtains from a university, but the informal variety that comes from credible work experience and professional accomplishments. The fourth cause concerned managers who’d been promoted for reasons other than potential. One reason in particular why these people had been promoted was that they had been around the longest. It wasn’t their skill set, or other merits that got them the job. It was their tenure.
 A point worth making is that the study was based only on the perspective of the employees. The researchers didn’t ask senior leaders what they thought of their frontline managers. It’s quite possible they are content with how the individuals they promoted are now performing, merrily ignorant of the damage they’re actually causing, which might explain why, as the researchers conclude, those same middle managers are usually unaware that they are a bad manager.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the recording you have just heard.
 With the use of driverless vehicles seemingly inevitable, mining companies in the vast Australian desert state of Western Australia are definitely taking the lead. Iron ore is a key ingredient in steel-making. The mining companies here produce almost 300 million tons of iron ore a year. The 240 giant autonomous trucks in use, in the Western Australian mines, can weigh 400 tons, fully loaded, and travel at speeds of up to sixty kilometers per hour.They are a technological leap, transporting iron ore along routes which run for hundreds of kilometers from mines to their destinations. Here when the truck arrives at its destination, staf in the operation center direct it precisely where to unload. Vast quantities of iron ore are then transported by autonomous trains to ocean ports.  Advocates argue these automated vehicles will change mining forever. It may only be five years before the use of automation technology leads to a fully robotic mine.
A range of factors has pushed Western Australia’s desert region to the lead of this automation revolution. These include the huge size of the mines, the scale of equipment and the repetitive nature of some of the work. Then there’s the area’s remoteness. At 502,000 square kilometers, it can sometimes make recruiting staff a challenge. Another consideration is the risks when humans interact with large machinery. There are also the financial imperatives. The ongoing push by the mining corporations to be more productive and more efficient is another powerful driver in embracing automation technology.
The concept of a fully autonomous mine is a bit of a misleading term, however. This is because the more technology is put into the field, the more people are needed to deploy, maintain and improve it.  The automation and digitization of the industry is creating a need for different jobs. These include data scientists and engineers in automation and artificial intelligence. The mining companies claim automation and robotics present opportunities to make mining more sustainable and safer. Employees will be of ered a career that is even more fulfilling and more rewarding.  Workers’ unions have accepted the inevitability of the introduction of new technology. But they still have reservations about the rise of automation technology. Their main concern is the potential impact on remote communities. As automation spreads further, the question is how these remote communities will survive when the old jobs are eliminated. And this may well prove to be the most significant impact of robotic technology at many places around the world.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the recording you have just heard.
 According to o ficial statistics, Thailand’s annual road death rate is almost double the global average. Thai people know that their roads are dangerous, but they don’t know this could easily be changed. Globally, road accidents kill more people every year than any infectious disease. Researchers at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in America put the death toll in 2017 at 1.24 million.  According to the institute, the overall number of deaths has been more or less static since the turn of the century. But that disguises a lot of changes in individual countries.
In many poor countries, road accidents are killing more people than ever before. Those countries have swelling,young populations, a fast-growing fleet of cars and motorbikes, and a limited supply of surgeons. It is impossible to know for sure, because o ficial statistics are so inadequate. But deaths are thought to have risen by 40% since 1990 in many low-income countries.
In many rich countries, by contrast, roads are becoming even safer. In Estonia and Ireland, for example, the number of deaths has fallen by about two thirds since the late 1990s.  But the most important and intriguing changes are taking place in middle-income countries, which contain most of the world’s people and have some of the most dangerous roads. According to researchers in China and South Africa, tra fic deaths have been falling since 2000 and in India since 2012, and the Philippines reached its peak four years ago.
The question is whether Thailand can soon follow suit. Rob McInerney, head of the International Road Assessment Program, says that all countries tend to go through three phases. They begin with poor, slow roads. In the second phase,as they grow wealthier, they pave the roads, allowing tra fic to move faster and pushing up the death rate. Lastly, in the third phase, countries act to make their roads safer.
The trick, then, is to reach the third stage sooner, by focusing earlier and more closely on fatal accidents. How to do that?  The solution lies not just in better infrastructure, but in better social incentives. Safe driving habits are practices which people know they should follow but often don’t. Dangerous driving is not a fixed cultural trait, as some imagine. People respond to incentives such as tra fic laws that are actually enforced.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.