2021年6月英语六级真题 第1套


Section B
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 .

How Marconi Gave Us the Wireless World

A)A hundred years before iconic figures like Bill Gates and Steve Jobs permeated our lives, an Irish-Italian inventor laid the foundation of the communication explosion of the 21st century. Guglielmo Marconi was arguably the first truly global figure in modern communication. Not only was he the first to communicate globally, he was the first to think globally about communication. Marconi may not have been the greatest inventor of his time, but more than anyone else, he brought about a fundamental shift in the way we communicate.
B)Today’s globally networked media and communication system has its origins in the 19th century, when, for the first time, messages were sent electronically across great distances. The telegraph, the telephone, and radio were the obvious predecessors of the Internet, iPods, and mobile phones. What made the link from then to now was the development of wireless communication. Marconi was the first to develop and perfect this system, using the recently-discovered “air waves” that make up the electromagnetic spectrum.
C)Between 1896, when he applied for his first patent in England at the age of 22, and his death in Italy in 1937,Marconi was at the center of every major innovation in electronic communication. He was also a skilled and sophisticated organizer, an entrepreneurial innovator, who mastered the use of corporate strategy, media relations, government lobbying, international diplomacy, patents, and prosecution. Marconi was really interested in only one thing: the extension of mobile, personal, long-distance communication to the ends of the earth (and beyond, if we can believe some reports). Some like to refer to him as a genius, but if there was any genius to Marconi it was this vision.
D)In 1901 he succeeded in signaling across the Atlantic, from the west coast of England to Newfoundland in the USA, despite the claims of science that it could not be done. In 1924 he convinced the British government to encircle the world with a chain of wireless stations using the latest technology that he had devised, shortwave radio. There are some who say Marconi lost his edge when commercial broadcasting came along; he didn’t see that radio could or should be used to frivolous (无聊的)ends. In one of his last public speeches, a radio broadcast to the United States in March 1937, he deplored that broadcasting had become a one-way means of communication and foresaw it moving in another direction, toward communication as a means of exchange.That was visionary genius.
E)Marconi’s career was devoted to making wireless communication happen cheaply, e ficiently, smoothly, and with an elegance that would appear to be intuitive and uncomplicated to the user—user-friendly, if you will.There is a direct connection from Marconi to today’s social media, search engines, and program streaming that can best be summed up by an admittedly provocative exclamation: the 20th century did not exist. In a sense, Marconi’s vision jumped from his time to our own.
F)Marconi invented the idea of global communication—or, more straightforwardly, globally networked,mobile, wireless communication. Initially, this was wireless Morse code telegraphy (电报通讯),the principal communication technology of his day. Marconi was the first to develop a practical method for wireless telegraphy using radio waves. He borrowed technical details from many sources, but what set him apart was a self-confident vision of the power of communication technology on the one hand, and, on the other, of the steps that needed to be taken to consolidate his own position as a player in that field. Tracing Marconi’s lifeline leads us into the story of modern communication itself. There were other important figures, but Marconi towered over them all in reach, power, and influence, as well as in the grip he had on the popular imagination of his time. Marconi was quite simply the central figure in the emergence of a modern understanding of communication.
G)In his lifetime, Marconi foresaw the development of television and the fax machine, GPS, radar, and the portable hand-held telephone. Two months before he died, newspapers were reporting that he was working on a “death ray,” and that he had “killed a rat with an intricate device at a distance of three feet.” By then,anything Marconi said or did was newsworthy. Stock prices rose or sank according to his pronouncements. If Marconi said he thought it might rain, there was likely to be a run on umbrellas.
H)Marconi’s biography is also a story about choices and the motivations behind them. At one level, Marconi could be fiercely autonomous and independent of the constraints of his own social class. On another scale,he was a perpetual outsider. Wherever he went, he was never “of ” the group; he was always the “other,”considered foreign in Britain, British in Italy, and “not American” in the United States. At the same time, he also suf ered tremendously from a need for acceptance that drove, and sometimes stained, every one of his relationships.
I)Marconi placed a permanent stamp on the way we live. He was the first person to imagine a practical application for the wireless spectrum, and to develop it successfully into a global communication system—in both terms of the word; that is, worldwide and all-inclusive. He was able to do this because of a combination of factors—most important, timing and opportunity—but the single-mindedness and determination with which he carried out his self-imposed mission was fundamentally character-based; millions of Marconi’s contemporaries had the same class, gender, race, and colonial privilege as he, but only a handful did anything with it. Marconi needed to achieve the goal that was set in his mind as an adolescent; by the time he reached adulthood, he understood, intuitively, that in order to have an impact he had to both develop an independent economic base and align himself with political power. Disciplined, uncritical loyalty to political power became his compass for the choices he had to make.
J)At the same time, Marconi was uncompromisingly independent intellectually. Shortly after Marconi’s death,the nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi—soon to be the developer of the Manhattan Project—wrote that Marconi proved that theory and experimentation were complementary features of progress. “Experience can rarely,unless guided by a theoretical concept, arrive at results of any great significance... on the other hand, an excessive trust in theoretical conviction would have prevented Marconi from persisting in experiments which were destined to bring about a revolution in the technique of radio-communications.” In other words, Marconi had the advantage of not being burdened by preconceived assumptions.
K)The most controversial aspect of Marconi’s life—and the reason why there has been no satisfying biography of Marconi until now—was his uncritical embrace of Benito Mussolini. At first this was not problematic for him. But as the regressive (倒退的)nature of Mussolini’s regime became clear, he began to suf er a crisis of conscience. However, after a lifetime of moving within the circles of power, he was unable to break with authority, and served Mussolini faithfully (as president of Italy’s national research council and royal academy,as well as a member of the Fascist Grand Council)until the day he died—conveniently—in 1937, shortly before he would have had to take a stand in the conflict that consumed a world that he had, in part, created.


B)今天的全球网络媒体和通信系统起源于19世纪,当时,信息第一次通过电子方式远距离传送。电报、电话和无线电显然是互联网、iPod音乐播放器和移动电话的前身。[44] 连接那时和现在的是无线通信的发展。马可尼是第一个开发和完善这一系统的人,他使用了最近发现的构成电磁波谱的“空气波”。
C)1896年,22岁的马可尼在英国申请了他的第一项专利,1937年他在意大利去世,在这期间,马可尼一直处于电子通信领域每一项重大创新的中心。他也是一个技能高超、经验丰富的组织者和具有企业家精神的创新者,精通使用公司战略、媒体关系、政府游说、国际外交、专利和起诉。[40] 马可尼真正感兴趣的只有一件事:将移动、个人、远程通信扩展到地球尽头(以及更远的地方,如果我们可以相信一些报道的话)。有些人喜欢称他为天才,但如果马可尼有什么天分的话,那就是他的远见。
D)1901年,他成功地实现了横跨大西洋的无线电通信,将信号从英国西海岸发送到了美国的纽芬兰,尽管科学声称这是不可能实现的。1924年,他说服英国政府使用他设计的最新技术——短波无线电,用一系列无线电台环绕世界。[38] 有人说,商业广播出现后,马可尼便失去了优势;他认为无线电广播不可以也不应该用于这类无聊目的。在他的最后一次演讲,即1937年3月所做的一次面向美国的公开广播讲话中,他对广播已经成为一种单向的交流方式感到遗憾,并预见到它将朝着另一个方向发展,朝向把通信作为一种交流的方式。这是一种有远见卓识的天资。
E)[41] 马可尼的职业生涯致力于使无线通信变得廉价、高效、顺畅,并以一种对用户来说似乎直观、简单的优雅方式进行——对用户很友好,如果你愿意的话。马可尼与今天的社交媒体、搜索引擎和节目流有着直接的联系,这种联系可以用一种不可否认的挑衅性感叹来总结:20世纪并不存在。在某种意义上,马可尼的愿景从他的时代跳到了我们的时代。
F)马可尼发明了全球通信的概念——或者更直接地说,全球联网、移动、无线通信。最初,这种通信方式是无线摩尔斯电码电报通讯,这是他那个时代的主要通信技术。马可尼是第一个利用无线电波为无线电报通讯开发出实用方法的人。他从很多方面借鉴了技术细节,但让他与众不同的是,一方面他对通信技术的力量充满了自信,另一方面,他对巩固自己作为该领域参与者的地位所需要采取的步骤也充满自信。追踪马可尼的生命线让我们进入了现代通信的故事。还有其他重要的人物,但马可尼在影响范围、权力和影响力以及他对当时大众想象的控制力上都超过了他们。[36] 马可尼真真正正是让人们开始以现代化思维理解通信的核心人物。
G)[43] 在他的一生中,马可尼预见了电视、传真机、全球定位系统、雷达和便携式手持电话的发展。在他去世前两个月,报纸报道说,他正在研究“死亡射线”,并说他“用一个复杂的装置在三英尺之外杀死了一只老鼠。”那时,马可尼所说或所做的一切都有新闻价值。股票价格根据他的公告上涨或下跌。如果马可尼说他认为可能会下雨,那么可能就会出现雨伞被抢购的情况。
H)马可尼的传记也是一个关于选择及其背后动机的故事。[45] 在某种程度上,马可尼可以非常独立自主,不受所处社会阶层的限制。另一方面,他永远是一个局外人。无论走到哪里,他都不是那群人中的“一员”;他永远被认为是“他国人” ,他在英国被认为是外国人,在意大利被认为是英国人,在美国被认为是“非美国人”。同时,他也因需要被接受而遭受巨大的痛苦,这种需要驱使着他的每一段关系,有时也败坏了他的每一段关系。
I)马可尼在我们的生活方式上烙上了永久的印记。他是第一个设想实际应用无线频谱的人,并成功地将其发展成为一个全球通信系统——从(global)这个词的两个方面来说,即世界范围的和包罗万象的。他能做到这一点是多种因素共同作用的结果——最重要的是时机和机会——但他在执行自己强加给自己的使命时所表现出的专一和决心,从根本上来说是基于他的性格;马可尼的同龄人中,有数百万人都拥有与他相同的阶级、性别、种族和殖民特权,但只有少数人真正有所作为。马可尼需要实现他在青少年时期心中所设定的目标;[37] 当他成年后,他凭直觉明白,要想产生影响力,他必须既要具备独立的经济基础,又要与政权结盟。对政治权力遵规守纪、不加批判地保持忠诚成为他不得不做出选择的指南针。
J)同时,马可尼在思想上毫不妥协地保持独立。[39] 马可尼去世后不久,即将成为曼哈顿计划开发者的核物理学家恩利克·费米写道,马可尼证明了理论和实验是进步的互补特征。“除非以理论概念为指导,否则实践很少能得出任何重大意义的结果……另一方面,对理论信念的过度信任会阻止马可尼坚持进行注定会带来无线电通信技术革命的实验。”换句话说,马可尼的优势在于不被先入为主的假设所束缚。
K)马可尼一生中最具争议的方面——也是迄今为止他都没有令人满意的传记的原因——是他对贝尼托·墨索里尼不加批判的拥护。起初,这对他来说并不是问题。但随着墨索里尼政权的倒退性质变得清晰,他开始遭受良心危机。[42] 然而,在权力圈子里活动了一辈子,他无法与当局断绝关系,并忠实地为墨索里尼服务(担任意大利国家研究委员会和皇家科学院的主席,以及“法西斯大委员会”的成员),直到1937年去世的那一天;(如果未去世)他过不了多久就不得不在那场消耗了某种程度上由他创造的世界的冲突中表明立场,(去世后反倒)省事了。

36.Marconi was central to our present-day understanding of communication.
正确答案: F

37.As an adult, Marconi had an intuition that he had to be loyal to politicians in order to be influential.
正确答案: I

38.Marconi disapproved of the use of wireless communication for commercial broadcasting.
正确答案: D

39.Marconi’s example demonstrates that theoretical concepts and experiments complement each other in making progress in science and technology.
正确答案: J

40.Marconi’s real interest lay in the development of worldwide wireless communication.
正确答案: C

41.Marconi spent his whole life making wireless communication simple to use.
正确答案: E

42.Because of his long-time connection with people in power,Marconi was unable to cut himself off from the fascist regime in Italy.
正确答案: K

43.In his later years, Marconi exerted a tremendous influence on all aspects of people’s life.
正确答案: G

44.What connected the 19th century and our present time was the development of wireless communication.
正确答案: B

45.Despite his autonomy, Marconi felt alienated and suf ered from a lack of acceptance.
正确答案: H

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Q Q:1171651136



  • ..


  • 第二篇听力音频不对啊


  • @chacha


  • different中间有空格


  • section C从 [17]往下3行,有效地:effectively(漏了f)


  • @feng.sir
    已修改, 谢谢你的反馈。


  • 怎么没有翻译的呢


  • @jiuyue_.


  • 第48题B选项中,"efect"有误,应该是"effect"。


  • 第54题D选项中,"efects"有误,应该是"effects"。


  • 第16题C选项,"Insu ficient"有误,应为"Insufficient"。