2021年6月英语六级真题 第1套


Section C
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C)and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.

Humans are fascinated by the source of their failings and virtues. This preoccupation inevitably leads to an old debate: whether nature or nurture moulds us more. A revolution in genetics has poised this as a modern political question about the character of our society: if personalities are hard-wired into our genes, what can governments do to help us? It feels morally questionable, yet claims of genetic selection by intelligence are making headlines.
This is down to “hereditarian” (遗传论的)science and a recent paper claimed “differences in exam performance between pupils attending selective and non-selective schools mirror the genetic dif erences between them”. With such an assertion, the work was predictably greeted by a lot of absurd claims about “genetics determining academic success”. What the research revealed was the rather less surprising result: the educational benefits of selective schools largely disappear once pupils’ inborn ability and socio-economic background were taken into account. It is a glimpse of the blindingly obvious—and there’s nothing to back strongly either a hereditary or environmental argument.
Yet the paper does say children are “unintentionally genetically selected” by the school system. Central to hereditarian science is a tall claim: that identifiable variations in genetic sequences can predict an individual’s aptness to learn, reason and solve problems. This is problematic on many levels. A teacher could not seriously tell a parent their child has a low genetic tendency to study when external factors clearly exist. Unlike-minded academics say the inheritability of human traits is scientifically unsound. At best there is a weak statistical association and not a causal link between DNA and intelligence. Yet sophisticated statistics are used to create an intimidatory atmosphere of scientific certainty.
While there’s an undoubted genetic basis to individual difference, it is wrong to think that socially defined groups can be genetically accounted for. The fixation on genes as destiny is surely false too. Medical predictability can rarely be based on DNA alone; the environment matters too. Something as complex as intellect is likely to be affected by many factors beyond genes. If hereditarians want to advance their cause it will require more balanced interpretation and not just acts of advocacy.
Genetic selection is a way of exerting influence over others, “the ultimate collective control of human destinies,” as writer H. G. Wells put it. Knowledge becomes power and power requires a sense of responsibility.In understanding cognitive ability, we must not elevate discrimination to a science: allowing people to climb the ladder of life only as far as their cells might suggest. This will need a more sceptical eye on the science.As technology progresses, we all have a duty to make sure that we shape a future that we would want to find ourselves in.

这一说法源于“遗传论”科学,[46] 最近的一篇论文称,“就读精英学校和非精英学校的学生在考试成绩上的差异反映了他们之间的基因差异”。[47] 有了这样的论断,不出所料,这项研究受到了许多支持“基因决定学术成功”荒谬说法的人士的欢迎。该项研究揭示了一个不那么令人惊讶的结果:一旦考虑到学生的先天能力和社会经济背景,精英学校的教育优势就基本上消失了。这只是对显而易见的事实的一瞥——无论是有关遗传还是环境的论点,都没有强有力的论据来支撑。
[47] 然而,论文的确说到,学校制度对学生进行了“无意识的基因选择”。“遗传论”科学的核心是一个荒诞的主张:基因序列中可识别的变异可以预测个体学习、推理和解决问题的能力。这在许多层面上都是有问题的。老师不能严肃地告诉家长他们的孩子缺乏学习的基因,因为明显存在外部因素。持不同观点的学者说,人类特质的可遗传性在科学上是不合理的。[48] DNA和智力之间充其量只有微弱的统计关联,没有因果关系。然而,复杂的统计数据被用来营造了一种令人生畏的科学确定性氛围。
虽然个体差异有遗传原因这一点毋庸置疑,但认为可以从基因角度来解释社会定义的群体是错误的。认为基因决定命运的观点也当然是错误的。医学上的可预测性很少能仅基于DNA;环境因素也很重要。像智力这样复杂的东西很可能会受到基因以外的许多因素的影响。[49] 如果“遗传论者”想推进他们的事业,就需要更加合理、公正的解释,而不仅仅是鼓吹。
基因选择论是对他人施加影响的一种方式,正如作家H. G.威尔斯所说,这种说法是对“人类命运的终极集体控制”。知识变成力量,力量需要责任感。[50] 在理解认知能力方面,我们决不能把歧视提升为一门科学:在人们攀登生命的阶梯时,只允许他们攀登到细胞允许的程度。这就需要我们对科学持有更多怀疑的态度。随着技术的进步,我们都有责任去确保我们塑造的未来中,我们自己也会包含在内。

46.What did a recent research paper claim?
A) The type of school students attend makes a dif erence to their future.
B) Genetic differences between students are far greater than supposed.
C) The advantages of selective schools are too obvious to ignore.
D) Students’ academic performance is determined by their genes.

47.What does the author think of the recent research?
A) Its result was questionable.
B) Its implication was positive.
C) Its influence was rather negligible.
D) Its conclusions were enlightening.

48.What does the author say about the relationship between DNA and intelligence?
A) It is one of scientific certainty.
B) It is not one of cause and efect.
C) It is subject to interpretation of statistics.
D) It is not fully examined by gene scientists.

49.What do hereditarians need to do to make their claims convincing?
A) Take all relevant factors into account in interpreting their data.
B) Conduct their research using more sophisticated technology.
C) Gather gene data from people of all social classes.
D) Cooperate with social scientists in their research.

50.What does the author warn against in the passage?
A) Exaggerating the power of technology in shaping the world.
B) Losing sight of professional ethics in conducting research.
C) Misunderstanding the findings of human cognition research.
D) Promoting discrimination in the name of science.

Passage Two
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.

Nicola Sturgeon’s speech last Tuesday setting out the Scottish government’s legislative programme for the year ahead confirmed what was already pretty clear. Scottish councils are set to be the first in the UK with the power to levy charges on visitors, with Edinburgh likely to lead the way.
Tourist taxes are not new. The Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan has a longstanding policy of charging visitors a daily fee. France’s tax on overnight stays was introduced to assist thermal spa (温泉)towns to develop, and around half of French local authorities use it today.
But such levies are on the rise. Moves by Barcelona and Venice to deal with the phenomenon of “over tourism” through the use of charges have recently gained prominence. Japan and Greece are among the countries to have recently introduced tourist taxes.
That the UK lags behind is due to our weak, by international standards, local government, as well as the opposition to taxes and regulation of our aggressively pro-market ruling party. Some UK cities have lobbied without success for the power to levy a charge on visitors. Such levies are no universal remedy as the amounts raised would be tiny compared with what has been taken away by central government since 2010. Still, it is to be hoped that the Scottish government’s bold move will prompt others to act. There is no reason why visitors to the UK, or domestic tourists on holiday in hotspots such as Cornwall, should be exempt from taxation—particularly when vital local services including waste collection, park maintenance and arts and culture spending are under unprecedented strain.
On the contrary, compelling tourists to make a financial contribution to the places they visit beyond their personal consumption should be part of a wider cultural shift. Westerners with disposable incomes have often behaved as if they have a right to go wherever they choose with little regard for the consequences. Just as the environmental harm caused by aviation and other transport must come under far greater scrutiny, the social cost of tourism must also be confronted. This includes the impact of short-term lets on housing costs and quality of life for residents. Several European capitals, including Paris and Berlin, are leading a campaign for tougher regulation by the European Union. It also includes the impact of overcrowding, litter and the kinds of behaviour associated with noisy parties.
There is no “one size fits all” solution to this problem. The existence of new revenue streams for some but not all councils is complicated, and businesses are often opposed, fearing higher costs will make them uncompetitive. But those places that want them must be given the chance to make tourist taxes work.

[51] 尼古拉·斯特金上周二的发言阐述了苏格兰政府未来一年的立法计划,证实了苏格兰议会将成为英国第一个有权对游客收费的议会,这一趋势基本已成定局,爱丁堡可能会率先实施。
英国之所以在开征旅游税上落后,是因为按照国际标准,我们的地方政府软弱,[52] 而且我们积极支持市场的执政党反对税收和监管。英国一些城市曾游说争取向游客收费的权力,但没有成功。此类征税并不是万能的补救措施,因为与2010年以来中央政府拿走的钱相比,(通过旅游税)筹集的金额微不足道。尽管如此,人们还是希望苏格兰政府这一大胆举措能促使其他地方政府采取行动。[53] 来到英国的游客或在康沃尔等热点地区度假的国内游客没有理由免税,尤其是在重要的当地服务系统(包括垃圾收集、公园维护和艺术文化支出)面临前所未有的压力时。
这个问题没有一劳永逸的解决办法。[55] 对于一些地方议会(而不是所有的议会)来说,新的收入来源的存在很复杂,企业也往往反对,担心成本上升会使它们失去竞争力。但是,必须给那些想要征收旅游税的地方机会,让旅游税发挥作用。

51.What do we learn from Nicola Sturgeon’s speech?
A) The UK is set to adjust its policy on taxation.
B) Tourists will have to pay a tax to visit Scotland.
C) The UK will take new measures to boost tourism.
D) Edinburgh contributes most to Scotland’s tourism.

52.How come the UK has been slow in imposing the tourist tax?
A) Its government wants to attract more tourists.
B) The tax is unlikely to add much to its revenue.
C) Its ruling party is opposed to taxes and regulation.
D) It takes time for local governments to reach consensus.

53.Both international and domestic visitors in the UK should pay tourist tax so as to __________.
53.在英国的国际和国内游客都应缴纳旅游税,以便 __________。
A) elevate its tourism to international standards
B) improve the welfare of its maintenance workers
C) promote its cultural exchange with other nations
D) ease its financial burden of providing local services

54.What does the author say about Western tourists?
A) They don’t seem to care about the social cost of tourism.
B) They don’t seem to mind paying for additional services.
C) They deem travel an important part of their life.
D) They subject the efects of tourism to scrutiny.

55.What are UK people’s opinions about the levy of tourist tax?
A) Supportive.
B) Skeptical.
C) Divided.
D) Unclear.

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Q Q:1171651136



  • ..


  • 第二篇听力音频不对啊


  • @chacha


  • different中间有空格


  • section C从 [17]往下3行,有效地:effectively(漏了f)


  • @feng.sir
    已修改, 谢谢你的反馈。


  • 怎么没有翻译的呢


  • @jiuyue_.


  • 第48题B选项中,"efect"有误,应该是"effect"。


  • 第54题D选项中,"efects"有误,应该是"effects"。


  • 第16题C选项,"Insu ficient"有误,应为"Insufficient"。