Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Millions die early from air pollution each year. Air pollution costs the global economy more than $5 trillion annually in welfare costs, with the most serious26 occurring in the developing world.
The figures include a number of costs27 with air pollution. Lost income alone amounts to $225 billion a year.
The report includes both indoor and outdoor air pollution. Indoor pollution, which includes28 like home heating and cooking, has remained29 over the past several decades despite advances in the area. Levels of outdoor pollution have grown rapidly along with rapid growth in industry and transportation.
Director of Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Chris Murray30 it as an “urgent call to action.” “One of the risk factors for premature deaths is the air we breathe, over which individuals have little31 ,” he said.
The effects of air pollution are worst in the developing world, where in some places lost-labor income32 nearly 1% of GDP. Around 9 in 10 people in low- and middle-income countries live in places where they33 experience dangerous levels of outdoor air pollution.
But the problem is not limited34 to the developing world. Thousands die prematurely in the U.S. as a result of related illnesses. In many European countries, where diesel (柴油)35 have become more common in recent years, that number reaches tens of thousands.