Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
Food-as-Medicine Movement Is Witnessing Progress
A) Several times a month, you can find a doctor in the aisles of Ralph’s market in Huntington Beach, California, wearing a white coat and helping people learn about food. On one recent day, this doctor was Daniel Nadeau, wandering the cereal aisle with Allison Scott, giving her some ideas on how to feed kids who persistently avoid anything that is healthy. “Have you thought about trying fresh juices in the morning?” he asks her. “The frozen oranges and apples are a little cheaper, and fruits are really good for the brain. Juices are quick and easy to prepare, you can take the frozen fruit out the night before and have it ready the next morning.”
B) Scott is delighted to get food advice from a physician who is program director of the nearby Mary and Dick Allen Diabetes Center, part of the St. Joseph Hoag Health alliance. The center’s ‘Shop with Your Doc’ program sends doctors to the grocery store to meet with any patients who sign up for the service, plus any other shoppers who happen to be around with questions.
C) Nadeau notices the pre-made macaroni (通心粉) -and-cheese boxes in Scott’s shopping cart and suggests she switch to whole grain macaroni and real cheese. “So I’d have to make it?” she asks, her enthusiasm fading at the thought of how long that might take, just to have her kids reject it. “I’m not sure they’d eat it. They just won’t eat it.”
D) Nadeau says sugar and processed foods are big contributors to the rising diabetes rates among children. “In America, over 50 percent of our food is processed food,” Nadeau tells her. “And only 5 percent of our food is plant-based food. I think we should try to reverse that.” Scott agrees to try more fruit juices for the kids and to make real macaroni and cheese. Score one point for the doctor, zero for diabetes.
E) Nadeau is part of a small revolution developing across California. The food-as-medicine movement has been around for decades, but it’s making progress as physicians and medical institutions make food a formal part of treatment, rather than relying solely on medications (药物) . By prescribing nutritional changes or launching programs such as ‘Shop with Your Doc’, they are trying to prevent, limit or even reverse disease by changing what patients eat. “There’s no question people can take things a long way toward reversing diabetes, reversing high blood pressure, even preventing cancer by food choices,” Nadeau says.
F) In the big picture, says Dr. Richard Afable, CEO and president of St. Joseph Hoag Health, medical institutions across the state are starting to make a philosophical switch to becoming a health organization, not just a health care organization. That feeling echoes the beliefs of the Therapeutic Food Pantry program at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, which completed its pilot phase and is about to expand on an ongoing basis to five clinic sites throughout the city. The program will offer patients several bags of food prescribed for their condition, along with intensive training in how to cook it. “We really want to link food and medicine, and not just give away food,” says Dr. Rita Nguyen, the hospital’s medical director of Healthy Food Initiatives. “We want people to understand what they’re eating, how to prepare it, the role food plays in their lives.”
G) In Southern California, Loma Linda University School of Medicine is offering specialized training for its resident physicians in Lifestyle Medicine—that is a formal specialty in using food to treat disease. Research findings increasingly show the power of food to treat or reverse diseases, but that does not mean that diet alone is always the solution, or that every illness can benefit substantially from dietary changes. Nonetheless, physicians say that they look at the collective data and a clear picture emerges: that the salt, sugar, fat and processed foods in the American diet contribute to the nation’s high rates of obesity, diabetes and heart disease. According to the World Health Organization, 80 percent of deaths from heart disease and stroke are caused by high blood pressure, tobacco use, elevated cholesterol and low consumption of fruits and vegetables.
H) “It’s a different paradigm (范式) of how to treat disease,” says Dr. Brenda Rea, who helps run the family and preventive medicine residency program at Loma Linda University School of Medicine. The lifestyle medicine specialty is designed to train doctors in how to prevent and treat disease, in part, by changing patients’ nutritional habits. The medical center and school at Loma Linda also has a food cupboard and kitchen for patients. This way, patients not only learn about which foods to buy, but also how to prepare them at home.
I) Many people don’t know how to cook, Rea says, and they only know how to heat things up. That means depending on packaged food with high salt and sugar content. So teaching people about which foods are healthy and how to prepare them, she says, can actually transform a patient’s life. And beyond that, it might transform the health and lives of that patient’s family. “What people eat can be medicine or poison,” Rea says. “As a physician, nutrition is one of the most powerful things you can change to reverse the effects of long-term disease.”
J) Studies have explored evidence that dietary changes can slow inflammation (炎症) , for example, or make the body inhospitable to cancer cells. In general, many lifestyle medicine physicians recommend a plant-based diet—particularly for people with diabetes or other inflammatory conditions.
K) “As what happened with tobacco, this will require a cultural shift, but that can happen,” says Nguyen. “In the same way physicians used to smoke, and then stopped smoking and were able to talk to patients about it, I think physicians can have a bigger voice in it.”
A) 在加利福尼亚州亨廷顿海滩的拉尔夫市场的过道里，你每个月都能发现几次一名身穿白大褂的医生帮助人们了解食物。最近的一天，这位名叫丹尼尔·纳多的医生和艾莉森·斯科特在谷物货架区闲逛，给了她一些建议，告诉她如何喂养那些坚决不吃任何健康食品的孩子。 “你想过试着早上喝新鲜果汁吗？”他问她。“冷冻橘子和苹果更便宜一些，而且水果对大脑的确有益处。果汁准备起来又快又容易，你可以在前一天晚上把冷冻的水果拿出来，第二天早上就可以准备好。”
B)  斯科特很高兴从来自附近的“玛丽和迪克艾伦糖尿病中心”的项目主任那里得到有关食物的建议。该中心是圣约瑟夫霍格健康联盟的一部分。该中心的“与医生一起购物”项目会派医生去杂货店，与任何注册了这项服务的病人以及其他碰巧在附近有问题要咨询的购物者见面。
C)  纳多注意到了斯科特的购物车中有已经加工好的盒装奶酪通心粉，建议她改为选购全麦通心粉和真正的奶酪。“所以我必须自己做吗？”她问道。一想到那样做可能要花多长时间，而得到的结果却是孩子们的拒绝，她的热情就在消退。“我不确定他们会不会吃。他们实在是不愿意吃。”
D) 纳多说，糖和加工食品是儿童糖尿病发病率上升的重要原因。 “在美国，我们的食物中有50%以上是加工食品。”纳多对她说，“而我们的食物中只有5%是植物性食物。我认为我们应该努力扭转这种局面。”斯科特同意给孩子们多喝些果汁并且制作真正的通心粉和奶酪。医生得一分，糖尿病得零分（如果我们听医生的建议多吃植物性食物，糖尿病就会远离我们）。
E) 纳多是整个加利福尼亚州正在发生的一场小型革命的一部分。 “食疗运动”已经存在了几十年，但是随着医生和医疗机构将食物作为治疗的正式部分，而不是单纯依赖于药物治疗，该运动正在取得进展。通过给病人开改变营养的处方或者发起诸如“与医生一起购物”等项目，他们正在试图通过改变病人的饮食来预防、限制甚至逆转疾病。纳多说：“毫无疑问，通过不同的食物选择，人们可以逆转糖尿病、高血压甚至预防癌症，但这可能有很长的路要走。”
F) 理查德·阿费伯医生是圣约瑟夫霍格健康联盟的首席执行官兼总裁，他说， 从整体来看，全州的医疗机构开始转变观念，成为一个卫生机构，而不仅仅是一个医疗卫生保健机构。这种感觉与扎克伯格旧金山总医院治疗性食品储藏项目的理念相呼应。该项目已经完成其试验阶段，并即将在全市范围内持续扩大到五个诊所。 该项目将向患者提供几袋根据其病情开出的食物，同时还会针对如何烹饪这些食物进行强化培训。“我们真的想把食物和药物联系起来，而不仅仅是免费提供食物，”该医院的健康食品计划的医疗主任阮丽塔医生这样说，“我们希望人们了解他们在吃什么，如何做这些东西，以及食物在他们生活中所发挥的作用。”
G) 在加利福尼亚州南部，洛马琳达大学医学院正在为其“生活方式医学部”的住院医生提供专业化培训——生活方式医学是使用食物来治疗疾病的正式专业。 越来越多的研究结果显示食物具有治疗或者逆转疾病的能力，但这并不意味着单靠饮食就总是能够解决问题，也不意味着每一种疾病的治疗都能通过饮食的改变而获益良多。尽管如此，医生们还是表示，他们看了这些汇总的数据之后，一个清晰的画面浮现了出来： 美国人饮食中的盐、糖、脂肪和加工食品是导致美国人肥胖、糖尿病和心脏病高发的原因之一。根据世界卫生组织的数据，死于心脏病和中风的人当中，有80%是由高血压、吸烟、胆固醇升高以及水果和蔬菜摄入量过低造成的。
I) 雷说，许多人不知道如何烹饪，他们只知道如何加热食物。这意味着（他们）依赖高盐、高糖的包装食品。 因此她说，教人们哪些食物是健康的，以及如何烹饪它们，实际上可以改变患者的生活。除此之外，这样做还可能会改变患者家人的健康和生活。“人们吃的可能是药，也可能是毒药。”雷说，“作为一名医生，营养是你可以改变、让其逆转长期疾病的影响的最强有力的事物之一。”
J) 研究已经探索了饮食的改变可以缓解炎症（以此为例）或使癌细胞不适宜存活于体内的证据。 一般来说，许多生活方式医学专业的医生都向人们推荐植物性饮食——尤其是糖尿病患者或者其他炎症患者。