2021年12月英语四级真题 第1套

长篇阅读



Section B
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.


There's a stress gap between men and women

A)“I used to work very hard. I love to create things, grow them and solve problems,” said Meng Li, a successful app developer in San Francisco. “I didn't really care about my mind and my body until they decided to go on strike.”
B)Ms. Li said her stress led to sleeplessness. When she did sleep, she experienced “problem-solving dreams,” which left her feeling unrested when she woke up. “After I became a first-time mother, I quickly realized I was so busy caring for other people and work that I felt like I'd lost myself,” she said.
C)It's a common story—one we frequently ridicule and readily dismiss, for example, by claiming that women tend to complain more than men, despite the growing sum of research that underlines the problem. Women are twice as likely to suffer from severe stress and anxiety as men, according to a 2016 study published in The Journal of Brain&Behavior. The American Psychological Association reports a gender gap year after year showing that women consistently report higher stress levels. Clearly, a stress gap exists.
D)“The difference is not really news to me, as a clinical psychologist,” said Erin Joyce, a women and couples therapist in Los Angeles. “It's been well documented in extensive research over the years that prevalence rates for the majority of the anxiety disorders are higher in women than men.” Some people may argue that this is merely reported data, and they say many men feel the same pressures as women in terms of fulfilling responsibilities at work and home. In other words, we're all really, really stressed.
E)“The difference, however, is in the nature and scope of these responsibilities in the home environment in particular,” Dr. Joyce said. For example, the United Nations reported that women do nearly three times as much unpaid domestic work as men. The problem is, housework is often overlooked as work, even though it is often as laborious(or in some cases, more so)as any paid job. As the scholar Silvia Federici put it in 1975, the unpaid nature of domestic work reinforces the assumption that “housework is not work, thus preventing women from struggling against it.”
F)It's not just inside the home, though. Research from Nova Southeastern University found that female managers were more likely than male managers to display “surface acting,” or forcing emotions that are not wholly felt. “They expressed optimism, calmness and sympathy even when these were not the emotions that they were actually feeling,” the study said.
G)Surface acting is a prime example of “emotional labor,” a concept that the writer Jess Zimmerman made familiar in a 2015 essay. The essay sparked a massive thread on the internet community blog MetaFilter. Hundreds of women spoke up about their own experience with emotional labor: the duties that are expected of them, but go unnoticed. These invisible duties become apparent only when you don't do them. Like domestic labor, emotional labor is generally dismissed and not labeled work. But research shows it can be just as exhausting as paid work. Emotional labor can lead to difficulty in sleeping and family conflict. Sure, circumstantial stress, like losing a job, may lead to these same issues. But emotional labor is not circumstantial. It's an enduring responsibility based on the socialized gender role of women.
H)Like Ms. Li, many women try to manage the added stress to reach what Dr. Joyce said was an unattainable ideal. “Some professional women aim to do it all. They want to reach the top of the corporate ladder and fly like supermom,” she said. When women don't reach this ideal, they feel guilty; and even more stressed. After her own struggle with this, Ms. Li took a step back and used her experience to build Sanity&Self, a self-care app and platform for overworked women. “The realizations I had in that process helped me gain insights and ultimately got me ready to integrate self-care into my daily life,” she said.
I)The stress problem extends beyond mental health when you consider the link between stress, anxiety and heart health. Worse, most of what we know about heart disease comes from studies involving men. However, “there are many reasons to think that it's different in women,” Harvard Medical School reported. For example, women are more likely to experience disturbed sleep, anxiety and unusual fatigue before a heart attack. Stress is so normalized that it is easy for women to shrug off those symptoms as simply the consequences of stress. Many women also do not experience chest pain before a heart attack the way men do, which leads to fewer women discovering problematic heart issues. Harvard reports that women are “much more likely than men to die within a year of having a heart attack” and “many women say their physicians sometimes don't even recognize the symptoms.”
J)The good news is, women are more likely than men to take charge of their stress and manage it, the American Psychological Association reports. The concept of self-care, at its core, is quite simple. “The basics of adequate sleep, healthy diet and exercise are a good place to start,” Dr. Joyce said. “Support from trusted relationship is vital. This includes professional support from various health and wellness providers if stress is becoming increasingly overwhelming.”
K)Disconnecting from work and home responsibilities is also obviously important. But it's much easier said than done. It is important to understand what causes your stress in the first place. “Get really specific with what's stressing you out,” Ms. Li said. “We often chalk up our stress to broad experiences like work. But work stress can take many different forms. Is a colleague being disrespectful of your time? Is a boss undermining your day-to-day control over decision making? These are different causes of stress and can benefit from different kinds of self-care.”
L)Ideally, your spouse or partner will be supportive, rather than dismissive, of your stress. It is important to talk through these issues before they come to a head. “Women working outside of the home should make an effort to have a conscious conversation with their partners about more equitable sharing of household and family responsibilities,” Dr. Joyce said.

男性和女性之间存在压力差距.

A)“我以前工作非常努力。我喜欢创造东西,优化它们和解决问题,”一位来自旧金山的成功的应用程序开发人员李萌(音译,编者注)说道。“我确实没怎么留意我的身心状况,直到它们决定罢工。”
B)[42] 李女士说,她的压力导致了失眠。当她真正睡着时,她会做有关“解决问题的梦”,这使她醒来时感到未休息好。“在我第一次当妈妈后,我很快意识到自己太过忙于照顾他人和处理工作,以至于我觉得迷失了自我。”
C)这是一个常见的故事——一种我们经常嘲笑并容易忽略的故事,例如,我们声称女性往往比男性更爱抱怨,尽管越来越多的研究强调了这一问题。[38] 根据2016年发表在《大脑与行为杂志》上的一项研究,女性遭受严重压力和焦虑的可能性是男性的两倍。美国心理协会年年都报告性别差距,显示女性持续报告更高的压力水平。显而易见,压力差距确实存在。
D)“作为一名临床心理治疗师,这种差异对我而言并不新鲜,”洛杉矶的一位女性和夫妻治疗师艾琳·乔伊斯说。“多年来的广泛研究充分证明,大多数焦虑症在女性中的患病率高于男性。” [45] 有些人可能会质疑说这仅仅是报告的数据,而且他们会说,在履行工作和家庭责任方面,许多男性感受到和女性同样的压力。换句话说,我们的确都倍感压力。
E)“然而,差异在于这些责任的性质和范围,尤其是在家庭环境中,”乔伊斯医生说。 [37] 例如,联合国报告称,女性所做的无偿家务几乎是男性的三倍。问题在于,家务劳动作为一种工作经常被忽视,尽管它通常与任何有偿工作一样耗时费力(在某些情况下,甚至更加耗时费力)。正如学者西尔维娅·费代里奇在1975年所说,家务劳动的无偿性质强化了“家务不是工作,从而阻止了女性与之抗争”的假设。
F)但不只是在家里会这样。诺瓦东南大学的研究发现,女性管理者比男性管理者更有可能表现出“表层伪装”,或者强装一些并非真情实感的情绪状态。[40] 该研究称:“她们表现出乐观、镇静和同情,即使这些并非她们的真实感受。”
G)表层伪装是“情绪劳动”的典型例子,它是作家杰西·齐默尔曼在2015年的一篇文章中提到的一个概念。这篇文章在互联网社区博客MetaFilter上引发了大量讨论。[43] 数百名女性讲述了她们各自的情绪劳动经历:人们对她们承担多少责任有期待,但又忽视她们所承担的这些责任。这些无形的责任只有在你不去做的时候才会显现出来。和家务劳动一样,情绪劳动通常被忽略,也没有被贴上工作的标签。但研究表明,情绪劳动会与有偿工作一样让人筋疲力尽。情绪劳动会导致睡眠困难以及家庭冲突。当然,环境压力,比如失业,可能会导致同样的问题。但情绪劳动与环境因素无关。它是一种基于女性社会性别角色的持久责任。
H)像李女士一样,许多女性试图控制额外的压力,以便达到乔伊斯医生所说的一种无法实现的理想。[36] “一些职业女性的目标是做到一切。她们想爬到公司的最高层,像超人妈妈一样飞翔,”她说。当女性没有达到这一理想时,她们会感到内疚;甚至压力更大。在经历了这种挣扎之后,李女士退了一步,利用自己的经验创建了“理智与自我”,这是一款为劳累过度的女性提供自我关爱的应用程序和平台。她说:“我在这个过程中的领悟帮助我获得了深刻的见解,并最终使我准备好将自我关爱融入到日常生活中。”
I)当你考虑压力、焦虑和心脏健康之间的联系时,压力问题就不仅仅只是心理健康问题了。更糟糕的是,我们所了解的心脏病的大部分知识都来自于对男性的研究。然而,哈佛医学院报告称:“有很多原因认为女性的情况有所不同。” [41] 例如,女性在心脏病发作前更有可能经历睡眠紊乱、焦虑和异常疲劳感。压力被常态化,以至于女性很容易将这些症状简单地视为压力的后果而不予理会。许多女性在心脏病发作前也不像男性那样会经历胸痛,这导致发现心脏有问题的女性会更少。哈佛大学报告称,女性“在心脏病发作后一年内死亡的可能性比男性要大得多”,而且“许多女性说,她们的医生有时甚至都没有识别她们的症状。”
J)好消息是,女性比男性更会控制和管理自己的压力,美国心理学会报告称。自我关爱的概念本质上很简单。乔伊斯医生说:“充足的睡眠、健康的饮食和锻炼,(满足)这些基本要素是个很好的开始。”[44] “来自信任关系的支持至关重要。如果压力越来越大,还需要来自各种健康和保健机构的专业支持。”
K)脱离工作和家庭责任显然也很重要。但说起来容易做起来难。[39] 首先,要明白是什么导致了你的压力,这很重要。“要真正弄清楚是什么使你倍感压力,”李女士说。“我们经常把我们的压力归因于广泛的经历,比如工作。但是工作压力也有许多不同的呈现形式。你的某位同事不尊重你的时间吗?老板是否在破坏你日常对决策的控制权?这些都是导致压力的不同原因,而且可以从不同的自我关爱中获益。”
L)理想情况下,你的配偶或伴侣会支持你而非对你的压力不屑一顾。在这些问题发展到极端之前讨论清楚是很重要的。乔伊斯医生说:“在外工作的女性应该努力与伴侣就更公平地分担家务和家庭责任进行一次慎重的谈话。”


36.Some career women who aim high tend to feel guilty if they fail to achieve their goals.
正确答案: H

37.The unpaid housework done by women is triple that done by men.
37.女性所做的无偿家务是男性的三倍。
正确答案: E

38.It is reported that women consistently suffer more from severe stress than men.
38.据报道,女性一直比男性承受更严重的压力。
正确答案: C

39.Women are advised to identify the specific causes of their stress so that steps can be taken to deal with it.
39.建议女性找出造成其压力的具体原因,以便采取措施应对压力。
正确答案: K

40.One study showed that women managers often expressed positive emotions that they didn't really feel.
40.一项研究表明,女性管理者通常会表露她们实际上并没有感受到的积极情绪。
正确答案: F

41.Women tend to mistake signs of heart attacks for symptoms of stress.
41.女性往往把心脏病发作的征兆误认为压力的症状。
正确答案: I

42.For a time an app developer in America was so busy attending to work and family that she suffered from sleeplessness.
42.美国的一名应用程序开发人员有段时间太过忙于工作和家庭,以至于饱受失眠之苦。
正确答案: B

43.The emotional labor women do is noticed only when it is not done.
43.女性的情绪劳动只有在没有做完的时候才会被注意到。
正确答案: G

44.Dr. Joyce suggests that apart from self-care, women should seek professional support if they experience severe stress.
44.乔伊斯医生建议,除了自我关爱之外,女性在经历严重压力时应该寻求专业支持。
正确答案: J

45.Some people believe that there may not exist a stress gap between men and women.
45.有些人认为男性和女性之间可能不存在压力差距。
正确答案: D




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