Directions: In this section, you will hear two passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
The saying “blind as a bat” simply isn't correct. The truth is that all 1,100 bat species can see and often their vision is pretty good, although not as excellent as other night-hunting animals.
There are two main groups of bats, which are believed to have evolved independently of each other, but both from a common ancestor. The first group, known as “mega bats”, are mostly medium-sized or large bats who eat fruits, flowers, and sometimes small animals or fish.［9］These species have distinctive visual centers and big eyes. They use senses of vision and smell to capture their prey. For example, Flying Foxes not only see well during daylight, but can also distinguish colors. They actually rely on their daylight vision and cannot fly during the night with no moonlight. The second group, called “micro bats”, are smaller in size and mostly eat insects.［10］These species use echo location to find their way and identify food. Scientists have proven that despite their poorly developed small eyes, these bats still can see during the day. When we consider the nightly lifestyle of these bats, we will see they have to be sensitive to the changing light levels because this is how they sense when to start hunting. Moreover, vision is used by micro bats to travel over long distances beyond the range of echo location.
So the truth is, there are no bats which are naturally blind.［11］Some species use their sense of hearing more than their eyes as a matter of adaptation to a particular lifestyle, but their eyes are still functional.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the passage you have just heard.
A study has found that educational TV shows come with an added lesson that influences a child's behavior.［12］Children spending more time watching educational programs increase their emotional aggression toward other children. This shows that children can learn the educational lesson that was intended. However, they're also learning other things along the way.
This unintended impact has to do with the portrayal of conflict in media and how preschool-age children comprehend that conflict. TV and movie producers often incorporate an element of bad behavior. This is to teach children a lesson at the end of the program. Educational shows have pro-education and pro-social goals. However, conflict between characters is often depicted with characters being unkind to each other, or they may use emotionally aggressive tactics with each other.［13］Preschool children really don't get the moral of the story. That's because it requires that they understand how all the parts of the show fit together. You need pretty complicated cognitive skills and memory skills to be able to do that. These are still developing in young children.
However, parents shouldn't completely constrain children's viewing.［14］Parents should instead watch with their kids and help them to understand the plot.［15］Parents can comment along the way and then explain the message in the end. They should explain how certain types of behavior were not appropriate. This will help children interpret and get the message and help them learn to watch the show for those messages.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.