Directions: In this section, you will hear three recordings of lectures or talks followed by three or four questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
While it has long been a practice in Asian countries, many people in Western countries have yet to embrace that no shoes in the house rule. For many in those countries wiping their shoes before going inside is recorded as sufficient.［16］After all, they may think a little dirt doesn't hurt anyone, but I can give you several good reasons why people should remove their shoes before going inside their homes.
Bacteria are everywhere. They collect on your shoes when you walk along sidewalks, public-toilet floors and even office carpets.［17］In one study conducted at an American university, researchers collected microscopic germs from footwear. They found that up to 421,000 units of bacteria can collect on the outside of a single shoe, and it only takes a little bit of dirt to damage your timber floors. The more dirt you track in, the more it scratches and the more often you have to clean. The extra scrubbing will harm your floors over time. Shoes can also leave marks and scratches on floors, especially high heels or shoes with pointy or hard parts. These can dent and scratch your floor. And if you live in an apartment building, removing your noisy shoes is the polite thing to do out of consideration for your downstairs neighbors. Walking around with bare feet is actually better for your feet. It strengthens the muscles in your feet. So many people are accustomed to wearing shoes during all their waking hours. The more time you spend wearing shoes, the more likely you are to incur foot injuries as a result.
And if people aren't yet convinced by my arguments, I can give one final reason.［18］The dust and toxic chemicals you bring into your house via your shoes can deteriorate the air quality in your home. Toxic chemicals are everywhere in our lives—insect killing chemicals used on public grass areas, cleaning chemicals on the floors of public areas. By kicking off your shoes before you enter the home, you are denying entry to these harmful chemicals. Given the amount of time we spend in classrooms and the number of shoes that pass through them every day, you may well understand me if I were to propose a NO SHOES in the classroom rule.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Emotions are an essential and inseparable part of our consciousness. They are part of a built-in mechanism which allows us to cope with the ups and downs of our lives both physically and mentally.
［19］When we hide our emotions and our true feelings, we stop being genuine, spontaneous and authentic in our relationships. When we put on cultivated and polished faces in the company of others, we stop being true to ourselves. Socially, it may be a good tactic to hide our true emotions, but morally, it is also a breach of faith and trust. Although humans are more advanced and intelligent, animals are more genuine and authentic in their behavior and responses than human beings. The more educated we are, the less transparent and reliable we become. We are drawn to our pets because pets do not lie.
［20］One of the first steps in dealing with emotions such as anger or fear is to acknowledge them as normal and human. There is nothing sinful or immoral about being emotional unless your emotions make you inhuman, insensitive, and cruel to others. Feelings of guilt associated with emotions are more devastating and damaging than the experience of emotion itself. So when you deal with the problem of emotions, you should learn not only how to control them, but also how to accept them and manage the guilt and anguish arising from them.
Our brains are made up of a primitive inner core and a more evolved and rational outer core. Most of the time, the rational part of the mind controls the information coming from the primitive core and makes its own decisions as to what to do and how to respond. However, during critical situations, especially when a threat is perceived, the outer core loses control and fails to regulate the impulses and instinctive responses coming from the primitive brain. As a result, we let disturbing thoughts and emotions arise in our consciousness and surrender to our primitive behavior.
In times of emotional turmoil, remember that emotions arise because your senses are wild to the primitive part of your mind, which is self-regulated, autonomous and spontaneous. Your rational mind does not always deal with the messages coming from it effectively. These messages are part of your survival mechanism and should not be stifled simply because emotions are unhealthy and betray your weaknesses.［21］When emotions arise, instead of stifling them, pay attention to them and try to understand the messages they are trying to deliver. This way you make use of your emotions without losing your balance and inner stability.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the recording you have just heard.
Good morning, class. My topic today is how to feed a hungry world.
The world's population is expected to grow from 6.8 billion today to 9.1 billion by 2050. Meanwhile, the world's population more than doubled from 3 billion between 1961 and 2007. Simultaneously, food production has been constrained by a lack of scientific research. Still, the task of feeding the world's population in 2050 seems “easily possible”.
What is needed is a second green revolution. This is an approach that is described as the sustainable growth of global agriculture. Such a revolution will require a wholesale shift of priorities in agricultural research.［22］There is an urgent need for new crop varieties. They must offer higher yields, but use less water, nitrogen-rich fertilizers or other inputs. These new crops must also be more resistant to drought, heat and pests. Equally crucial is lower-tech research into basics such as crop rotation and mixed farming of animals and plants on small farms.
Developing nations could score substantial gains in productivity by making better use of modern technologies and practices. But that requires money. It is estimated that to meet the 2050 challenge, investment must double to $83 billion US dollars a year.［23］Most of that money needs to go towards improving agricultural infrastructure. Everything from production to storage and processing must improve.
However, research agendas need to be focused on the needs of the poorest and most resource-limited countries. It is there that most of the world's population lives, and it is there that population growth over the next decades will be the greatest.［24］To their credit, the world's agricultural scientists are embracing such a broad view. In March, for example, they came together at the first Global Conference on Agricultural Research to begin working out how to change research agendas to help meet the needs of farmers in poorer nations. But these plans will not bear fruit unless they get considerably more support from policy-makers.
The growth in public agricultural-research spending peaked in the 1970s and has been shrinking ever since.［25］The big exception is China, where spending has far surpassed other countries over the past decade. China seems set to transition to become the key supplier of relevant science and technology to poorer countries. But developed countries have a humanitarian responsibility, too. Calls by scientists for large increases in the appropriation of funds for public spending on agricultural research are more than justified.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.